Advertisement

Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise

      Abstract

      This study aimed to compare the efficacy of hot/cold contrast water immersion (CWI), cold-water immersion (COLD) and no recovery treatment (control) as post-exercise recovery methods following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise. Repeated sprint ability, strength, muscle soreness and inflammatory markers were measured across the 48-h post-exercise period. Eleven male team-sport athletes completed three 3-day testing trials, each separated by 2 weeks. On day 1, baseline measures of performance (10 m × 20 m sprints and isometric strength of quadriceps, hamstrings and hip flexors) were recorded. Participants then performed 80 min of simulated team sports exercise followed by a 20-m shuttle run test to exhaustion. Upon completion of the exercise, and 24 h later, participants performed one of the post-exercise recovery procedures for 15 min. At 48 h post-exercise, the performance tests were repeated. Blood samples and muscle soreness ratings were taken before and immediately after post-exercise, and at 24 h and 48 h post-exercise. In comparison to the control and CWI treatments, COLD resulted in significantly lower (p < 0.05) muscle soreness ratings, as well as in reduced decrements to isometric leg extension and flexion strength in the 48-h post-exercise period. COLD also facilitated a more rapid return to baseline repeated sprint performances. The only benefit of CWI over control was a significant reduction in muscle soreness 24 h post-exercise. This study demonstrated that COLD following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise offers greater recovery benefits than CWI or control treatments.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic and Personal
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Cochrane D.J.
        Alternating hot and cold water immersion for athlete recovery: a review.
        Phys Ther Sport. 2004; 5: 26-32
        • Paddon-Jones D.J.
        • Quigley B.M.
        Effect of cryotherapy on muscle soreness and strength following eccentric exercise.
        Int J Sports Med. 1997; 18: 588-593
        • Eston R.
        • Peters D.
        Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage.
        J Sports Sci. 1999; 17: 231-238
        • Hiruma E.
        • Okamune T.
        • Sasaki H.
        • Uminura Y.
        Effects of icing treatment on delayed onset muscle soreness during 7 days of maximum strength exercise.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34: 89
        • Hiruma E.
        • Terada K.
        • Sasaki H.
        • Umimura Y.
        Effects of icing on delayed onset muscle soreness following exercise.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999; 31: 75
        • Higgins D.
        • Kaminski T.W.
        Contrast therapy does not cause fluctuations in human gastrocnemius intramuscular temperature.
        J Athl Train. 1998; 33: 336-340
        • Myrer J.W.
        • Measom G.
        • Durrant E.
        • Fellingham G.W.
        Cold- and hot-pack contrast therapy: subcutaneous and intramuscular temperature change.
        J Athl Train. 1997; 32: 238-241
        • Coffey V.
        • Leveritt M.
        • Gill N.
        Effect of recovery modality on 4-h repeated treadmill running performance and changes in physiological variables.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2004; 7: 1-10
        • Dawson B.
        • Gow S.
        • Modra S.
        • Bishop D.
        • Stewart G.
        Effects of immediate post-game recovery procedures on muscle soreness, power and flexibility levels over the next 48 h.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2005; 8: 210-221
        • Kuligowski L.A.
        • Lephart S.M.
        • Giannantonio F.P.
        • Blanc R.O.
        Effect of whirlpool therapy on the signs and symptoms of delayed-onset muscle soreness.
        J Athl Train. 1998; 33: 222-228
        • Vaile J.
        • Gill N.
        • Blazevich A.J.
        The effect of contrast water therapy on symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and explosive athletic performance.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2007; 21: 697-702
        • Wilcock I.M.
        • Cronin J.B.
        • Hing W.A.
        Physiological response to water immersion: a method for sport recovery?.
        Sports Med. 2006; 36: 747-765
        • Bishop D.
        • Spencer M.
        • Duffield R.
        • Lawrence S.
        The validity of a repeated sprint ability test.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2001; 4: 19-29
        • Borg G.
        Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982; 14: 377-381
        • Dill D.B.
        • Costill D.L.
        Calculation of percentage change in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration.
        J Appl Physiol. 1974; 37: 247-248
        • Takarada Y.
        Evaluation of muscle damage after a rugby match with special reference to tackle plays.
        Br J Sports Med. 2003; 37: 416-419
        • Thompson D.
        • Williams C.
        • Garcia-Roves P.
        • McGregor S.J.
        • McArdle F.
        • Jackson M.J.
        Post-exercise vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 89: 393-400
        • Warren G.L.
        • Lowe D.A.
        • Armstrong R.B.
        Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury.
        Sports Med. 1999; 27: 43-59
        • Morton P.J.
        • Atkinson G.
        • MacLaren D.P.M.
        • Cable N.T.
        • Gilbert G.
        • Broome C.
        • et al.
        Reliability of maximal muscle force and voluntary activation as markers of exercise-induced muscle damage.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005; 94: 541-548
        • Fowles J.R.
        • Boutlier G.
        • Murphy R.J.L.
        Cold water immersion following intense interval running improves subsequent running performance.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35: 1
        • Yanagisawa O.
        • Miyanaga Y.
        • Shiraki H.
        • Shimojo H.
        • Mukai N.
        • Niitsu M.
        • et al.
        The effects of various therapeutic measures on shoulder strength and muscle soreness after baseball pitching.
        J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2003; 43: 189-201