Advertisement

Adaptations to skeletal muscle with endurance exercise training in the acutely fed versus overnight-fasted state

      Abstract

      Minimising carbohydrate (CHO) status in the peri-training period may accelerate the training adaptations normally observed. The aim of this study was to compare adaptations to endurance training undertaken in the acutely CHO fed and overnight-fasted states. Eight female and six male untrained, healthy participants: aged 26.6 ± 5.8 years (mean ± SD); height 174.7 ± 7.6 cm; weight 75.3 ± 11.4 kg; VO2max 3.48 ± 0.67 l/min; were randomly divided into two training groups and undertook four weeks of five days per week endurance cycle ergometer training in either the overnight-fasted (FAST) or acutely fed (FED) state. FAST training had no effect on RER or plasma glucose, lactate and FFA concentrations during subsequent submaximal exercise. Training-induced changes in Vastus lateralis citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxy-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activities were not different between training groups (P = 0.655 and 0.549, respectively), but when the effect of gender was considered, men responded better to FAST and women responded better to FED. The FAST group showed a significantly greater training-induced increase in VO2max and resting muscle glycogen concentration than FED (P = 0.014 and P = 0.047 respectively), but there was no gender interaction. In conclusion, these results suggest that (a) meal ingestion prior to daily exercise can modify some of the exercise training-induced adaptations normally seen with endurance training compared to when daily exercise is undertaken in the overnight-fasted state; and (b) the extent of these adaptations in skeletal muscle differ slightly between men and women.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • JADA
        Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: nutrition and athletic performance.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2000; 100: 1543-1556
        • Kreider R.B.
        • Almada A.L.
        • Antonio J.
        • et al.
        ISSN exercise and sport nutrition review: research and recommendations.
        Sports Nutr Rev J. 2004; 1: 1-44
        • Hawley J.A.
        • Tipton K.D.
        • Millard-Stafford M.L.
        Promoting training adaptations through nutritional interventions.
        J Sports Sci. 2006; 24: 709-721
        • De Bock K.
        • Derave W.
        • Eijnde B.O.
        • et al.
        Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake.
        J Appl Physiol. 2008; 104: 1045-1055
        • Nybo L.
        • Pedersen K.
        • Christensen B.
        • et al.
        Impact of carbohydrate supplementation during endurance training on glycogen storage and performance.
        Acta Physiol. 2009; 197: 117-127
        • Tarnopolsky M.A.
        • Atkinson S.A.
        • Phillips S.M.
        • et al.
        Carbohydrate loading and metabolism during exercise in men and women.
        J Appl Physiol. 1995; 78: 1360-1368
        • Tarnopolsky M.A.
        • Rennie C.D.
        • Robertshaw H.A.
        • et al.
        Influence of endurance exercise training and sex on intramyocellular lipid and mitochondrial ultrastructure, substrate use, and mitochondrial enzyme activity.
        Am J Physiol. 2007; 292: R1271-R1278
        • Conway K.J.
        • Orr R.
        • Stannard S.R.
        Effect of a divided caffeine dose on endurance cycling performance, postexercise urinary caffeine concentration, and plasma paraxanthine.
        J Appl Physiol. 2003; 94: 1557-1562
        • Bergstrom J.
        Muscle electrolytes in man.
        Scand J Clin Lab Investn (Suppl). 1962; 68: 1-110
        • Spina R.J.
        • Chi M.M.-Y.
        • Hopkins M.G.
        • et al.
        Mitochondrial enzymes increase in muscle in response to 7–10 days of cycle exercise.
        J Appl Physiol. 1996; 80: 2250-2254
        • Bergmeyer H.U.
        • Gawehn K.
        • Grassl M.
        Enzymes as biochemical reagents.
        in: Bergmeyer H.U. Methods of enzymatic analysis. Verlag Chemie, New York1974: 434-500
        • Hansen A.K.
        • Fischer C.P.
        • Plomgaard P.
        • et al.
        Skeletal muscle adaptation: training twice every second day vs. training once daily.
        J Appl Physiol. 2005; 98: 93-99
        • Mittendorfer B.
        • Horowitz J.F.
        • Klein S.
        Effect of gender on lipid kinetics during endurance exercise of moderate intensity in untrained subjects.
        Am J Physiol. 2002; 283: E58-E65
        • Roepstorff C.
        • Donsmark M.
        • Thiele M.
        • et al.
        Sex differences in hormone-sensitive lipase expression, activity, and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise.
        Am J Physiol. 2006; 291: E1106-E1114
        • Roepstorff C.
        • Thiele M.
        • Hillig T.
        • et al.
        Higher skeletal muscle alpha2AMPK activation and lower energy charge and fat oxidation in men than in women during submaximal exercise.
        J Physiol. 2006; 574: 125-138
        • Pilegaard H.
        • Keller C.
        • Steensberg A.
        • et al.
        Influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on exercise-induced transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes.
        J Physiol. 2002; 541: 261-271
        • Pilegaard H.
        • Osada T.
        • Andersen L.T.
        • et al.
        Substrate availability and transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise.
        Metabolism. 2005; 54: 1048-1055
        • Muoio D.M.
        • Leddy J.J.
        • Horvarth P.J.
        • et al.
        Effect of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO2 and endurance in runners.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994; 26: 81-88
        • Langfort J.
        • Pilis W.
        • Zarzeczny R.
        • et al.
        Effect of low-carbohydrate-ketogenic diet on metabolic and hormonal responses to graded exercise in men.
        J Physiol Pharmacol. 1996; 47: 361-371