Advertisement

Creatine kinase and its relationship with match performance in elite Australian Rules football

      Abstract

      Objectives

      The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of pre-match creatine kinase on match performance measures in elite Australian Rules football.

      Design

      Repeated measures single cohort longitudinal.

      Methods

      Twenty-nine elite Australian Rules football players were assessed across a competitive season. Creatine kinase was collected 24–36 h pre-match, and investigated against two measures of match performance; performance ranking scores (based on playing statistics) and coach's performance ratings. Multi-level modelling was applied and player characteristics were considered as moderating variables in the analysis.

      Results

      Average player pre-match creatine kinase was 485% greater than baseline values. Six-minute running performance was negatively related with average player pre-match creatine kinase (r = −0.432, p = 0.019). Creatine kinase was negatively associated with performance ranking scores (r = −0.149, p = 0.035), although increases in playing experience reversed this relationship (p = 0.003). Coach's subjective ratings declined with elevations in pre-match creatine kinase (p = 0.002).

      Conclusions

      Increases in creatine kinase from baseline to pre-match indicate residual muscle damage. Small decrements in match performance were explained by increases in pre-match creatine kinase. However, player characteristics related to age and experience appear to be important moderating variables. Elevated pre-match creatine kinase likely represents a state of incomplete recovery from the preceding week, and over time, residual muscle damage. Creatine kinase monitoring may be most appropriately used with young and inexperienced players, and those with lower aerobic running performance to assist in the modulation of training and recovery loads to optimise match preparation and performance.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Twist C.
        • Eston R.
        The effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on maximal intensity intermittent exercise performance.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005; 94: 652-658
        • McLellan C.P.
        • Lovell D.I.
        • Gass G.C.
        Biochemical and endocrine response to impact and collision during elite rugby league match play.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2011; 25: 1553-1562
        • Young W.B.
        • Hepner J.
        • Robbins D.W.
        Movement demands in Australian rules football as indicators of muscle damage.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2012; 26: 492-496
        • Coutts A.
        • Reaburn P.
        • Piva T.J.
        • et al.
        Changes in selected biochemical, muscular strength, power, and endurance measures during deliberate overreaching and tapering in rugby league players.
        Int J Sports Med. 2007; 28: 116-124
        • Brancaccio P.
        • Maffulli N.
        • Limongelli F.M.
        Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine.
        Br Med Bull. 2007; 81–82: 209-230
        • Ispirlidis I.
        • Fatouros I.G.
        • Jamurtas A.Z.
        • et al.
        Time-course of changes in inflammatory and performance responses following a soccer game.
        Clin J Sport Med. 2008; 18: 423-431
        • Lazarim F.L.
        • Antunes-Neto J.M.F.
        • da Silva F.O.C.
        • et al.
        The upper values of plasma creatine kinase of professional soccer players during the Brazilian National Championship.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2009; 12: 85-90
        • Coelho D.B.
        • Morandi R.F.
        • de Melo M.A.
        • et al.
        Creatine kinase kinetics in professional soccer players during a competitive season.
        Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 2011; 13: 189-194
        • Gray A.J.
        • Jenkins D.G.
        Match analysis and the physiological demands of Australian football.
        Sports Med. 2010; 40: 347-360
        • Gastin P.B.
        • Meyer D.
        • Robinson D.
        Perceptions of wellness to monitor adaptive responses to training and competition in elite Australian football.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2012; https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31827fd600
        • Buchheit M.
        • Racinais S.
        • Bilsborough J.C.
        • et al.
        Monitoring fitness, fatigue and running performance during a pre-season training camp in elite football players.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2013; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.12.003
        • Cormack S.J.
        • Newton R.U.
        • McGuigan M.R.
        • et al.
        Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players during an Australian rules football season.
        Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008; 3: 439-453
        • Mooney M.G.
        • Cormack S.
        • O’Brien B.J.
        • et al.
        Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on match exercise intensity and performance in elite Australian football.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2013; 27: 166-173
        • Ascensao A.
        • Leite M.
        • Rebelo A.N.
        • et al.
        Effects of cold water immersion on the recovery of physical performance and muscle damage following a one-off soccer match.
        J Sports Sci. 2011; 29: 217-225
        • Hoffman J.R.
        • Kang J.
        • Ratamess N.A.
        • et al.
        Biochemical and hormonal responses during an intercollegiate football season.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005; 37: 1237-1241
        • Howatson G.
        • Milak A.
        Exercise-induced muscle damage following a bout of sport specific repeated sprints.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2009; 23: 2419-2424
        • Mooney M.
        • O’Brien B.
        • Cormack S.
        • et al.
        The relationship between physical capacity and match performance in elite Australian football: a mediation approach.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2011; 14: 447-452
        • Heasman J.
        • Dawson B.
        • Berry J.
        • et al.
        Development and validation of a player impact ranking system in Australian football.
        Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2008; 8: 156-171
        • Johnston R.J.
        • Watsford M.L.
        • Pine M.J.
        • et al.
        Movement demands and match performance in professional Australian football.
        Int J Sports Med. 2012; 33: 89-93
        • Gastin P.B.
        • Fahrner B.
        • Meyer D.
        • et al.
        Influence of physical fitness, age, playing experience and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2012; https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318267925f
        • Young W.
        • Russell A.
        • Burge P.
        • et al.
        The use of sprint tests for assessment of speed qualities of elite Australian rules footballers.
        Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008; 3: 199-206
        • MacLeod H.
        • Morris J.
        • Nevill A.
        • et al.
        The validity of a non-differential global positioning system for assessing player movement patterns in field hockey.
        J Sports Sci. 2009; 27: 121-128
        • Hopkins W.G.
        • Marshall S.W.
        • Batterham A.M.
        • et al.
        Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 3-12
        • Cohen J.
        A power primer.
        Psychol Bull. 1992; 112: 155-159
      1. Hopkins WG. A new view of statistics. Available from: http://www.sportsci.org/resource/stats/ [accessed October 2012].

        • Bishop P.A.
        • Jones E.
        • Woods A.K.
        Recovery from training: a brief review.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2008; 22: 1015-1024
        • Slattery K.M.
        • Wallace L.K.
        • Bentley D.J.
        • et al.
        Effect of training load on simulated team sport match performance.
        Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012; 37: 315-322
        • Brewer C.
        • Dawson B.
        • Heasman J.
        • et al.
        Movement pattern comparisons in elite (AFL) and sub-elite (WAFL) Australian football games using GPS.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2010; 13: 618-623
        • Veale J.P.
        • Pearce A.J.
        Profile of position movement demands in elite junior Australian rules footballers.
        J Sports Sci Med. 2009; 8: 320-326
        • Rogalski B.
        • Dawson B.
        • Heasman J.
        • et al.
        Training and game loads and injury risk in elite Australian footballers.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2013; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.12.004