Advertisement

Warm-up with a weighted vest improves running performance via leg stiffness and running economy

Published:January 27, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.12.005

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To determine the effects of “strides” with a weighted-vest during a warm-up on endurance performance and its potential neuromuscular and metabolic mediators.
      A bout of resistance exercise can enhance subsequent high-intensity performance, but little is known about such priming exercise for endurance performance.

      Design

      A crossover with 5–7 days between an experimental and control trial was performed by 11 well-trained distance runners.

      Methods

      Each trial was preceded by a warm-up consisting of a 10-min self-paced jog, a 5-min submaximal run to determine running economy, and six 10-s strides with or without a weighted-vest (20% of body mass). After a 10-min recovery period, runners performed a series of jumps to determine leg stiffness and other neuromuscular characteristics, another 5-min submaximal run, and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak running speed. Clinical and non-clinical forms of magnitude-based inference were used to assess outcomes. Correlations and linear regression were used to assess relationships between performance and underlying measures.

      Results

      The weighted-vest condition resulted in a very-large enhancement of peak running speed (2.9%; 90% confidence limits ±0.8%), a moderate increase in leg stiffness (20.4%; ±4.2%) and a large improvement in running economy (6.0%; ±1.6%); there were also small-moderate clear reductions in cardiorespiratory measures. Relationships between change scores showed that changes in leg stiffness could explain all the improvements in performance and economy.

      Conclusions

      Strides with a weighted-vest have a priming effect on leg stiffness and running economy. It is postulated the associated major effect on peak treadmill running speed will translate into enhancement of competitive endurance performance.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Bishop D.
        Warm up II: performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up.
        Sports Med. 2003; 33: 483-498
        • Bishop D.
        • Bonetti D.
        • Dawson B.
        The effect of three different warm-up intensities on kayak ergometer performance.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33: 1026-1032
        • Hajoglou A.
        • Foster C.
        • De Koning J.J.
        • et al.
        Effect of warm-up on cycle time trial performance.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005; 37: 1608-1614
        • Ingham S.A.
        • Fudge B.W.
        • Pringle J.S.
        • et al.
        Improvement of 800-m running performance with prior high-intensity exercise.
        Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013; 8: 77-83
        • Paavolainen L.M.
        • Hakkinen K.
        • Hamalainen I.
        • et al.
        Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power.
        J Appl Physiol. 1999; 86: 1527-1533
        • Spurrs R.W.
        • Murphy A.J.
        • Watsford M.L.
        The effect of plyometric training on distance running performance.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 89: 1-7
        • Hodgson M.
        • Docherty D.
        • Robbins D.
        Post-activation potentiation: underlying physiology and implications for motor performance.
        Sports Med. 2005; 35: 585-595
        • Tillin N.A.
        • Bishop D.
        Factors modulating post-activation potentiation and its effect on performance of subsequent explosive activities.
        Sports Med. 2009; 39: 147-166
        • Bosco C.
        • Rusko H.
        • Hirvonen J.
        The effect of extra-load conditioning on muscle performance in athletes.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986; 18: 415-419
        • Bosco C.
        • Zanon S.
        • Rusko H.
        • et al.
        The influence of extra load on the mechanical behavior of skeletal muscle.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 1984; 53: 149-154
        • Rusko H.
        • Bosco C.C.
        Metabolic response of endurance athletes to training with added load.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 1987; 56: 412-418
        • Borg G.
        Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress.
        Scand J Rehabil Med. 1970; 2: 92-98
        • Brooks G.A.
        • Fahey T.D.
        • White T.P.
        Exercise physiology: human bioenergetics and its applications.
        Mayfield Pub. Co., Mountain View, CA1996
        • McGuigan M.R.
        • Doyle T.L.
        • Newton M.
        • et al.
        Eccentric utilization ratio: effect of sport and phase of training.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2006; 20: 992-995
        • Cavagna G.A.
        • Franzetti P.
        • Heglund N.C.
        • et al.
        The determinants of the step frequency in running, trotting and hopping in man and other vertebrates.
        J Physiol. 1988; 399: 81-92
        • Hopkins W.G.
        Spreadsheets for analysis of controlled trials, with adjustment for a subject characteristic.
        Sportscience. 2006; 10: 46-50
        • Hopkins W.G.
        • Marshall S.W.
        • Batterham A.M.
        • et al.
        Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 3-13
        • Hopkins W.G.
        Competitive performance of elite track-and-field athletes: variability and smallest worthwhile enhancements.
        Sportscience. 2005; 9: 17-20
        • Hopkins W.G.
        A spreadsheet for deriving a confidence interval, mechanistic inference and clinical inference from a p value.
        Sportscience. 2007; 11: 16-20
        • Hopkins W.G.
        Research designs: choosing and fine-tuning a design for your study.
        Sportscience. 2008; 12: 12-21
        • Hopkins W.G.
        • Schabort E.J.
        • Hawley J.A.
        Reliability of power in physical performance tests.
        Sports Med. 2001; 31: 211-234
        • Ferris D.P.
        • Liang K.
        • Farley C.T.
        Runners adjust leg stiffness for their first step on a new running surface.
        J Biomech. 1999; 32: 787-794
        • Burgess K.E.
        • Connick M.J.
        • Graham-Smith P.
        • et al.
        Plyometric vs. isometric training influences on tendon properties and muscle output.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2007; 21: 986-989
        • Barnes K.R.
        • Hopkins W.G.
        • McGuigan M.R.
        • et al.
        Effects of different uphill interval-training programs on running economy and performance.
        Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013; 8: 639-647
        • Sale D.G.
        Postactivation potentiation: role in human performance.
        Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2002; 30: 138-143
        • Dalleau G.
        • Belli A.
        • Bourdin M.
        • et al.
        The spring-mass model and the energy cost of treadmill running.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 1998; 77: 257-263
        • Millet G.P.
        • Jaouen B.
        • Borrani F.
        • et al.
        Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34: 1351-1359
        • Barnes K.R.
        • Hopkins W.G.
        • McGuigan M.R.
        • et al.
        Effects of resistance training on running economy and cross-country performance.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013; 45: 2322-2331
        • Jones A.M.
        • Wilkerson D.P.
        • Burnley M.
        • et al.
        Prior heavy exercise enhances performance during subsequent perimaximal exercise.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35: 2085-2092
        • di Prampero P.E.
        • Capelli C.
        • Pagliaro P.
        • et al.
        Energetics of best performances in middle-distance running.
        J Appl Physiol. 1993; 74: 2318-2324