Advertisement

Improvements on neuromuscular performance with caffeine ingestion depend on the time-of-day

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To determine whether the ergogenic effects of caffeine ingestion on neuromuscular performance are similar when ingestion takes place in the morning and in the afternoon.

      Design

      Double blind, cross-over, randomized, placebo controlled design.

      Methods

      Thirteen resistance-trained males carried out bench press and full squat exercises against four incremental loads (25%, 50%, 75% and 90% 1RM), at maximal velocity. Trials took place 60 min after ingesting either 6 mg kg−1 of caffeine or placebo. Two trials took place in the morning (AMPLAC and AMCAFF) and two in the afternoon (PMPLAC and PMCAFF), all separated by 36–48 h. Tympanic temperature, plasma caffeine concentration and side-effects were measured.

      Results

      Plasma caffeine increased similarly during AMCAFF and PMCAFF. Tympanic temperature was lower in the mornings without caffeine effects (36.7 ± 0.4 vs. 37.0 ± 0.5 °C for AM vs. PM; p < 0.05). AMCAFF increased propulsive velocity above AMPLAC to levels similar to those found in the PM trials for the 25%, 50%, 75% 1RM loads in the SQ exercise (5.4–8.1%; p < 0.05). However, in the PM trials, caffeine ingestion did not improve propulsive velocity at any load during BP or SQ. The negative side effects of caffeine were more prevalent in the afternoon trials (13 vs. 26%).

      Conclusions

      The ingestion of a moderate dose of caffeine counteracts the muscle contraction velocity declines observed in the morning against a wide range of loads. Caffeine effects are more evident in the lower body musculature. Evening caffeine ingestion not only has little effect on neuromuscular performance, but increases the rate of negative side-effects reported.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Kline C.E.
        • Durstine J.L.
        • Davis J.M.
        • et al.
        Circadian variation in swim performance.
        J Appl Physiol. 2007; 102: 641-649
        • Sedliak M.
        • Finni T.
        • Peltonen J.
        • et al.
        Effect of time-of-day-specific strength training on maximum strength and emg activity of the leg extensors in men.
        J Sports Sci. 2008; 26: 1005-1014
        • Atkinson G.
        • Speirs L.
        Diurnal variation in tennis service.
        Percept Motor Skills. 1998; 86: 1335-1338
        • Jasper I.
        • Haussler A.
        • Baur B.
        • et al.
        Circadian variations in the kinematics of handwriting and grip strength.
        Chronobiol Int. 2009; 26: 576-594
        • Moussay S.
        • Bessot N.
        • Gauthier A.
        • et al.
        Diurnal variations in cycling kinematics.
        Chronobiol Int. 2003; 20: 879-892
        • Atkinson G.
        • Todd C.
        • Reilly T.
        • et al.
        Diurnal variation in cycling performance: influence of warm-up.
        J Sports Sci. 2005; 23: 321-329
        • Souissi N.
        • Bessot N.
        • Chamari K.
        • et al.
        Effect of time of day on aerobic contribution to the 30-s wingate test performance.
        Chronobiol Int. 2007; 24: 739-748
        • Teo W.
        • McGuigan R.
        • Newton M.J.
        The effects of circadian rhythmicity of salivary cortisol and testosterone on maximal isometric force, maximal dynamic force, and power output.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2011; 25: 1538-1545
        • Racinais S.
        • Blonc S.
        • Jonville S.
        • et al.
        Time of day influences the environmental effects on muscle force and contractility.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005; 37: 256-261
        • Souissi N.
        • Driss T.
        • Chamari K.
        • et al.
        Diurnal variation in wingate test performances: Influence of active warm-up.
        Chronobiol Int. 2010; 27: 640-652
        • Racinais S.
        • Blonc S.
        • Hue O.
        Effects of active warm-up and diurnal increase in temperature on muscular power.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005; 37: 2134-2139
        • Desbrow B.
        • Leveritt M.
        Well-trained endurance athletes’ knowledge, insight, and experience of caffeine use.
        Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007; 17: 328-339
        • Burke L.M.
        Caffeine sports performance.
        Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008; 33: 1319-1334
        • Astorino T.A.
        • Martin B.J.
        • Schachtsiek L.
        • et al.
        Minimal effect of acute caffeine ingestion on intense resistance training performance.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2011; 25: 1752-1758
        • Astorino T.A.
        • Rohmann R.L.
        • Firth K.
        Effect of caffeine ingestion on one-repetition maximum muscular strength.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008; 102: 127-132
        • Mora-Rodriguez R.
        • Garcia Pallares J.
        • Lopez-Samanes A.
        • et al.
        Caffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained men.
        PLoS One. 2012; 7
        • Pallares J.G.
        • Fernandez-Elias V.E.
        • Ortega J.F.
        • et al.
        Neuromuscular responses to incremental caffeine doses: performance and side-effects.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013; 45: 2184-2192
        • Souissi N.
        • Gauthier A.
        • Sesboue B.
        • et al.
        Circadian rhythms in two types of anaerobic cycle leg exercise: force-velocity and 30-s wingate tests.
        Int J Sports Med. 2004; 25: 14-19
        • Racinais S.
        Different effects of heat exposure upon exercise performance in the morning and afternoon.
        Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010; 20 Suppl. 3: 80-89
        • Astorino T.A.
        • Roberson D.W.
        Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2010; 24: 257-265
        • Shohet K.L.
        • Landrum R.E.
        Caffeine consumption questionnaire: a standardized measure for caffeine consumption in undergraduate students.
        Psychol Rep. 2001; 89: 521-526
        • Kamimori G.H.
        • Karyekar C.S.
        • Otterstetter R.
        • et al.
        The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers.
        Int J Pharm. 2002; 234: 159-167
        • Cox G.R.
        • Desbrow B.
        • Montgomery P.G.
        • et al.
        Effect of different protocols of caffeine intake on metabolism and endurance performance.
        J Appl Physiol. 2002; 93: 990-999
        • Pallares J.G.
        • Sanchez-Medina L.
        • Perez C.
        • et al.
        Imposing a pause between the eccentric and concentric phases increases the reliability of isoinertial strength assessments.
        J Sports Sci. 2014; 32: 1165-1175
        • Bell D.G.
        • Jacobs I.
        • Ellerington K.
        Effect of caffeine and ephedrine ingestion on anaerobic exercise performance.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33: 1399-1403
        • Meyers B.M.
        • Cafarelli E.
        Caffeine increases time to fatigue by maintaining force and not by altering firing rates during submaximal isometric contractions.
        J Appl Physiol. 2005; 99: 1056-1063
        • Warren G.L.
        • Park N.D.
        • Maresca R.D.
        • et al.
        Effect of caffeine ingestion on muscular strength and endurance: a meta-analysis.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010; 42: 1375-1387
        • Davis J.M.
        • Zhao Z.W.
        • Stock H.S.
        • et al.
        Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue.
        Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003; 284: R399-R404
        • Mohr T.
        • Van Soeren M.
        • Graham T.E.
        • et al.
        Caffeine ingestion and metabolic responses of tetraplegic humans during electrical cycling.
        J Appl Physiol. 1998; 85: 979-985
        • McLean C.
        • Graham T.E.
        Effects of exercise and thermal stress on caffeine pharmacokinetics in men and eumenorrheic women.
        J Appl Physiol. 2002; 93: 1471-1478