Advertisement

Motor competence and health related physical fitness in youth: A systematic review

Published:December 11, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.12.004

      Abstract

      Objectives

      This study aimed to review the scientific evidence on associations between motor competence (MC) and components of health related physical fitness (HRPF), in children and adolescents.

      Design

      Systematic review.

      Methods

      Systematic search of Academic Search Premier, ERIC, PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, SportDiscus, and Web of Science databases was undertaken between October 2012 and December 2013. Studies examining associations between MC and HRPF components (body weight status, cardiorespiratory fitness, musculoskeletal fitness and flexibility) in healthy children and adolescents, published between 1990 and 2013, were included. Risk of bias within studies was assessed using CONSORT and STROBE guidelines. The origin, design, sample, measure of MC, measure of the HRPF, main results and statistics of the studies were analyzed and a narrative synthesis was conducted.

      Results

      Forty-four studies matched all criteria; 16 were classified as low risk of bias and 28 as medium risk. There is strong scientific evidence supporting an inverse association between MC and body weight status (27 out of 33 studies) and a positive association between MC and cardiorespiratory fitness (12 out of 12 studies) and musculoskeletal fitness (7 out of 11 studies). The relationship between MC and flexibility was uncertain.

      Conclusions

      Considering the noted associations between various assessments of MC and with multiple aspects of HRPF, the development of MC in childhood may both directly and indirectly augment HRPF and may serve to enhance the development of long-term health outcomes in children and adolescents.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Institute of Medicine (IOM)
        Fitness measures and health outcomes in youth.
        Institute of Medicine (IOM), Washington2012
        • Ortega F.B.
        • Ruiz J.R.
        • Castillo M.J.
        • et al.
        Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health.
        Int J Obes (Lond). 2008; 32: 1-11https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774
        • Kohl III, H.W.
        • Hobbs K.E.
        Development of physical activity behaviors among children and adolescents.
        Pediatrics. 1998; 101: 549-554
        • Stodden D.F.
        • Goodway J.D.
        • Langendorfer S.J.
        • et al.
        A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship.
        Quest. 2008; 60: 290-306https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582
        • D’Hondt E.
        • Deforche B.
        • Gentier I.
        • et al.
        A longitudinal analysis of gross motor coordination in overweight and obese children versus normal-weight peers.
        Int J Obes (Lond). 2013; 37: 61-67https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2012.55
        • Lubans D.R.
        • Morgan P.J.
        • Cliff D.P.
        • et al.
        Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: review of associated health benefits.
        Sports Med. 2010; 40: 1019-1035https://doi.org/10.2165/11536850-000000000-00000
        • Morgan P.J.
        • Barnett L.M.
        • Cliff D.P.
        • et al.
        Fundamental movement skill interventions in youth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Pediatrics. 2013; 132: e1361-e1383https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1167
        • Smith J.J.
        • Eather N.
        • Morgan P.J.
        • et al.
        The health benefits of muscular fitness for children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sports Med. 2014; 44: 1209-1223https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0196-4
        • Liberati A.
        • Altman D.G.
        • Tetzlaff J.
        • et al.
        The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration.
        BMJ. 2009; 339: b2700https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2700
        • Cantell M.
        • Crawford S.G.
        • Doyle-Baker P.K.
        Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence.
        Hum Mov Sci. 2008; 27: 344-362https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2008.02.007
        • Haga M.
        Physical fitness in children with high motor competence is different from that in children with low motor competence.
        Phys Ther. 2009; 89: 1089-1097https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20090052
        • Lopes V.P.
        • Stodden D.F.
        • Bianchi M.M.
        • et al.
        Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2012; 15: 38-43https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.07.005
        • Barnett L.M.
        • Morgan P.J.
        • Van Beurden E.
        • et al.
        Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008; 5https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-5-40
        • Barnett L.M.
        • Van Beurden E.
        • Morgan P.J.
        • et al.
        Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness?.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008; 40: 2137-2144https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818160d3
        • Hands B.
        Changes in motor skill and fitness measures among children with high and low motor competence: a five-year longitudinal study.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2008; 11: 155-162https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.02.012
        • Hands B.
        • Larkin D.
        • Parker H.
        • et al.
        The relationship among physical activity, motor competence and health-related fitness in 14-year-old adolescents.
        Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009; 19: 655-663https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00847.x
        • Hardy L.L.
        • Reinten-Reynolds T.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and correlates of low fundamental movement skill competency in children.
        Pediatrics. 2012; 130: e390-e398https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-0345
        • Hume C.
        • Okely A.
        • Bagley S.
        • et al.
        Does weight status influence associations between children's fundamental movement skills and physical activity?.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2008; 79: 158-165
        • Jones R. a
        • Okely A.D.
        • Caputi P.
        • et al.
        Perceived and actual competence among overweight and non-overweight children.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2010; 13: 589-596https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2010.04.002
        • Poulsen A.A.
        • Desha L.
        • Ziviani J.
        • et al.
        Fundamental movement skills and self-concept of children who are overweight.
        Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011; 6: e464-e471https://doi.org/10.3109/17477166.2011.575143
        • Okely A.D.
        • Booth M.L.
        • Chey T.
        Relationships between body composition and fundamental movement skills among children and adolescents.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2004; 75: 238-247https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2004.10609157
        • Okely A.D.
        • Booth M.L.
        • Patterson J.W.
        Relationship of cardiorespiratory endurance to fundamental movement skill proficiency among adolescents.
        Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2001; 13: 380-391
        • Southall J.
        • Steele J.
        • Okely A.
        Actual and perceived physical competence in overweight and nonoverweight children.
        Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2004; 16: 15-24
        • Castelli D.M.
        • Valley J.A.
        Chapter 3: the relationship of physical fitness and motor competence to physical activity.
        J Teach Phys Educ. 2007; 26: 358-374
        • Erwin H.E.
        • Castelli D.M.
        National physical education standards: a summary of student performance and its correlates.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2008; 79: 495-505
        • Logan S.W.
        • Scrabis-Fletcher K.
        • Modlesky C.
        • et al.
        The relationship between motor skill proficiency and body mass index in preschool children.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2011; 82: 442-448
        • McKenzie T.L.
        • Sallis J.F.
        • Broyles S.L.
        • et al.
        Childhood movement skills: predictors of physical activity in Anglo American and Mexican American adolescents?.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2002; 73: 238-244
        • Nervik D.
        • Martin K.
        • Rundquist P.
        • et al.
        The relationship between body mass index and gross motor development in children aged 3 to 5 years.
        Pediatr Phys Ther. 2011; 23: 144-148https://doi.org/10.1097/PEP.0b013e318218d356
        • Nunez-Gaunaurd A.
        • Moore J.G.
        • Roach K.E.
        • et al.
        Motor proficiency, strength, endurance, and physical activity among middle school children who are healthy, overweight, and obese.
        Pediatr Phys Ther. 2013; 25 (Discussion 139): 130-138https://doi.org/10.1097/PEP.0b013e318287caa3
        • Reeves L.
        • Broeder C.E.
        • Kennedy-Honeycutt L.
        • et al.
        Relationship of fitness and gross motor skills for five- to six-yr.-old children.
        Percept Mot Skills. 1999; 89: 739-747
        • Roberts D.
        • Veneri D.
        • Decker R.
        • et al.
        Weight status and gross motor skill in kindergarten children.
        Pediatr Phys Ther. 2012; 24: 353-360https://doi.org/10.1097/PEP.0b013e3182680f19
        • Stodden D.F.
        • Gao Z.
        • Langendorfer S.J.
        • et al.
        Dynamic relationships between motor skill competence and health-related fitness in youth.
        Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2014; 26: 231-241https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2013-0027
        • D’Hondt E.
        • Deforche B.
        • De Bourdeaudhuij I.
        • et al.
        Relationship between motor skill and body mass index in 5- to 10-year-old children.
        Adapt Phys Act Q. 2009; 26: 21-37
        • D’Hondt E.
        • Deforche B.
        • Vaeyens R.
        • et al.
        Gross motor coordination in relation to weight status and age in 5- to 12-year-old boys and girls: a cross-sectional study.
        Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011; 6: e556-e564https://doi.org/10.3109/17477166.2010.500388
        • Gentier I.
        • D’Hondt E.
        • Shultz S.
        • et al.
        Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children.
        Res Dev Disabil. 2013; 34: 4043-4051https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.08.040
        • Vandendriessche J.B.
        • Vandorpe B.
        • Coelho-e-Silva M.J.
        • et al.
        Multivariate association among morphology, fitness, and motor coordination characteristics in boys age 7 to 11.
        Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2011; 23: 504-520
        • Lopes V.P.
        • Maia J.A.R.
        • Rodrigues L.P.
        • et al.
        Motor coordination, physical activity and fitness as predictors of longitudinal change in adiposity during childhood.
        Eur J Sport Sci. 2012; 12: 384-391https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2011.566368
        • Martins D.
        • Maia J.
        • Seabra A.
        • et al.
        Correlates of changes in BMI of children from the Azores islands.
        Int J Obes (Lond). 2010; 34: 1487-1493https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2010.56
        • Pereira S.A.
        • Seabra A.T.
        • Silva R.G.
        • et al.
        Correlates of health-related physical fitness levels of Portuguese children.
        Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011; 6: 53-59https://doi.org/10.3109/17477161003792549
        • Saraiva L.
        • Rodrigues L.P.
        • Cordovil R.
        • et al.
        Influence of age, sex and somatic variables on the motor performance of pre-school children.
        Ann Hum Biol. 2013; 40: 444-450https://doi.org/10.3109/03014460.2013.802012
        • Haga M.
        The relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children.
        Child Care Health Dev. 2008; 34: 329-334https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00814.x
        • Tveter A.T.
        • Holm I.
        Influence of thigh muscle strength and balance on hop length in one-legged hopping in children aged 7–12 years.
        Gait Posture. 2010; 32: 259-262https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.05.009
        • Vedul-Kjelsås V.
        • Sigmundsson H.
        • Stensdotter A.-K.
        • et al.
        The relationship between motor competence, physical fitness and self-perception in children.
        Child Care Health Dev. 2012; 38: 394-402https://doi.org/10.1111/j. 1365-2214.2011.01275.x
        • Khalaj N.
        • Amri S.
        Mastery of gross motor skills in preschool and early elementary school obese children.
        Early Child Dev Care. 2013; 184: 795-802https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2013.820724
        • Vameghi R.
        • Shams A.
        • Dehkordi P.S.
        The effect of age, sex and obesity on fundamental motor skills among 4 to 6 years-old children.
        Pak J Med Sci. 2013; 29 (http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.292.3069): 586-589
        • Vameghi R.
        • Shams A.
        • Dehkordi P.S.
        Relationship between age, sex and body mass index with fundamental motor skills among 3 to 6 years-old children.
        Med Glas. 2013; 18: 7-15https://doi.org/10.5937/medgla1347007V
        • Graf C.
        • Koch B.
        • Kretschmann-Kandel E.
        • et al.
        Correlation between BMI, leisure habits and motor abilities in childhood (CHILT-project).
        Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004; 28: 22-26https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802428
        • Krombholz H.
        Motor and cognitive performance of overweight preschool children.
        Percept Mot Skills. 2013; 116: 40-57https://doi.org/10.2466/22.25.PMS.116.1.40-57
        • Spessato B.C.
        • Gabbard C.
        • Valentini N.C.
        The role of motor competence and body mass index in children's activity levels in physical education classes.
        J Teach Phys Educ. 2013; 32: 118-130
        • Marshall J.D.
        • Bouffard M.
        The effects of quality daily physical education on movement competency in obese versus nonobese children.
        Adapt Phys Act Q. 1997; 14: 222-237
        • Morrison K.M.
        • Bugge A.
        • El-Naaman B.
        • et al.
        Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children.
        Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2012; 24: 199-209
        • Morano M.
        • Colella D.
        • Caroli M.
        Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.
        Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011; 6: 42-46https://doi.org/10.3109/17477166.2011.613665
        • Truter L.
        • Piennar A.E.
        • Du Toit D.
        The relationship of overweight and obesity to the motor performance of children living in South Africa.
        S Afr Fam Pract. 2012; 54: 429-435
        • Bertalanffy L.V.
        The theory of open systems in physics and biology.
        Science. 1950; 111: 23-29
        • Vandorpe B.
        • Vandendriessche J.
        • Vaeyens R.
        • et al.
        Relationship between sports participation and the level of motor coordination in childhood: a longitudinal approach.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2012; 15: 220-225https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.09.006
        • Faigenbaum A.D.
        • Farrell A.
        • Fabiano M.
        • et al.
        Effects of integrative neuromuscular training on fitness performance in children.
        Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2011; 23: 573-584
        • Campbell B.
        • Stodden D.
        • Nixon M.
        Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2010; 24: 964-971https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cb241b
        • Kellis E.
        • Hatzitaki V.
        Development of neuromuscular coordination with implications in motor control.
        in: De Ste Croix M. Korff T. Paediatric biomechanics and motor control. Theory and application. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, New York, NY2012: 50-70
        • Stodden D.F.
        • True L.K.
        • Langendorfer S.J.
        • et al.
        Associations among selected motor skills and health-related fitness: indirect evidence for Seefeldt's proficiency barrier in young adults?.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2013; 84: 397-403https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2013.814910
        • Ratamess N.A.
        Adaptations to anaerobic training programs.
        in: Baechle T. Earle R. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. 4th ed. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL2008: 94-99