Advertisement

Gluteal muscle function and size in swimmers

  • Adam I. Semciw
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia

    Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Research Focus Area, La Trobe University, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Rodney A. Green
    Affiliations
    Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Research Focus Area, La Trobe University, Australia

    Department of Pharmacy and Applied Sciences, La Trobe University, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Tania Pizzari
    Affiliations
    Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Research Focus Area, La Trobe University, Australia

    School of Allied Health, College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, Australia
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To compare the gluteus medius and minimus segments size and activity in swimmers versus non-swimmers.

      Design

      Case matched-control cross-sectional study.

      Methods

      The three segments of gluteus medius (anterior, middle and posterior) and two segments of gluteus minimus (anterior and posterior) were evaluated using electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging in 15 swimmers (7 elite and 8 non-elite) and 15 gender- and aged-matched controls. For each muscle segment, values were obtained for peak amplitude, average amplitude, and time to peak from each phase of the gait cycle (0–20%, 20–60%, and total stance).

      Results

      The pattern of anterior gluteus minimus EMG activity in swimmers demonstrated additional activity early in the gait cycle when compared with controls. The segmental differences between anterior and posterior gluteus minimus during gait identified in the control group were not present in the swimmers. Overall, there were no significant differences in the gluteus medius EMG characteristics between groups and muscle size was not significantly different between groups for any of the hip abductor muscles.

      Conclusions

      The preliminary evidence of non-segmental differences within the gluteus minimus of swimmers (as opposed to non-swimmers) might implicate reduced-gravity environments in contributing to subsequent changes in deep stabiliser muscles. Such changes might predispose the athlete to a greater risk of lower limb injury during weight bearing activities.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Sport and recreation: A statistical overview. 〈http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/6E28777ED2896A2BCA257AD9000E2FC5/$File/41560_2012.pdf〉; 2013 [accessed 15.10.13].

        • Chase N.L.
        • Sui X.
        • Blair S.N.
        Comparison of the health aspects of swimming with other types of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle habits.
        IJARE. 2008; 2: 151-161
        • Wolf B.R.
        • Ebinger A.E.
        • Lawler M.P.
        • et al.
        Injury patterns in division I collegiate swimming.
        Am J Sports Med. 2009; 37: 2037-2042
        • McFarland E.G.
        • Wasik M.
        Injuries in female collegiate swimmers due to swimming and cross training.
        Clin J Sport Med. 1996; 6: 178-182
        • Walters J.
        • Solomons M.
        • Davies J.
        Gluteus minimus: observations on its insertion.
        J Anat. 2001; 198: 239-242
        • Peck D.
        • Buxton D.F.
        • Nitz A.
        A comparison of spindle concentrations in large and small muscles acting in parallel combinations.
        J Morphol. 1984; 180: 243-252
        • Sparks N.
        The detailed anatomy of the hip abductor muscles and their role in lateral hip pain.
        University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand2011
        • Miokovic T.
        • Armbrecht G.
        • Felsenberg D.
        • et al.
        Differential atrophy of the postero-lateral hip musculature during prolonged bedrest and the influence of exercise countermeasures.
        J Appl Physiol. 2011; 110: 926-934
        • Semciw A.I.
        • Green R.A.
        • Murley G.S.
        • et al.
        Gluteus minimus: an intramuscular EMG investigation of anterior and posterior segments during gait.
        Gait Posture. 2014; 39: 822-826
        • Semciw A.I.
        • Pizzari T.
        • Murley G.S.
        • et al.
        Gluteus medius: an intramuscular EMG investigation of anterior, middle and posterior segments during gait.
        J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2013; 23: 858-864
        • Grimaldi A.
        • Richardson C.
        • Stanton W.
        • et al.
        The association between degenerative hip joint pathology and size of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and piriformis muscles.
        Man Ther. 2009; 14: 605-610
        • Magkos F.
        • Kavouras S.A.P.
        • Yannakoulia M.P.
        • et al.
        The bone response to non-weight-bearing exercise is sport-, site-, and sex-specific.
        Clin J Sport Med. 2007; 17: 123-128
        • Tegner Y.
        • Lysholm J.
        Rating systems in the evaluation of knee ligament injuries.
        Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1985; 198: 43-49
        • Weeks B.
        • Beck B.
        The BPAQ: a bone-specific physical activity assessment instrument.
        Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 1567-1577
        • Bullock-Saxton J.E.
        • Wong W.J.
        • Hogan N.
        The influence of age on weight-bearing joint reposition sense of the knee.
        Exp Brain Res. 2001; 136: 400-406
        • Semciw A.I.
        • Pizzari T.
        • Green R.A.
        Technical application and the level of discomfort associated with an intramuscular electromyographic investigation into gluteus minimus and gluteus medius.
        Gait Posture. 2013; 38: 157-160
        • Semciw A.I.
        • Green R.A.
        • Pizzari T.
        • et al.
        Verification of a standardized method for inserting intramuscular EMG electrodes into uniquely oriented segments of gluteus minimus and gluteus medius.
        Clin Anat. 2013; 26: 244-252
        • Borenstein M.
        • Hedges L.V.
        • Higgins J.P.
        • et al.
        Introduction to meta-analysis.
        Wiley, West Sussex2009
        • Roy R.R.
        • Hutchison D.L.
        • Pierotti D.J.
        • et al.
        EMG patterns of rat ankle extensors and flexors during treadmill locomotion and swimming.
        J Appl Physiol. 1991; 70: 2522-2529
        • English A.W.
        An electromyographic analysis of compartments in cat lateral gastrocnemius muscle during unrestrained locomotion.
        J Neurophysiol. 1984; 52: 114-125
        • Kenal K.A.
        • Knapp L.D.
        Rehabilitation of injuries in competitive swimmers.
        Sports Med. 1996; 22: 337-347
        • Sahrmann S.
        Diagnosis and treatment of movement impairment syndromes.
        Mosby, St. Louis2002
        • Lewis C.L.
        • Sahrmann S.A.
        Effect of posture on hip angles and moments during gait.
        Man Ther. 2015; 20: 176-182
        • Kaneda K.
        • Sato D.
        • Wakabayashi H.
        • et al.
        EMG activity of hip and trunk muscles during deep-water running.
        J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2009; 19: 1064-1070
        • Grimaldi A.
        MRI investigations of the muscles involved in lateral stability of the hip.
        Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, the University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld2008 (PhD Thesis)
        • Richardson C.A.
        The deload model of injury.
        in: Richardson C.A. Hodges P. Hides J.A. Therapeutic exercise for lumbopelvic stabilization: a motor control approach for the treatment and prevention of low back pain. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh2004 (Chapter 7)
        • Miokovic T.
        • Armbrecht G.
        • Felsenberg D.
        • et al.
        Heterogeneous atrophy occurs within individual lower limb muscles during 60 days of bed rest.
        J Appl Physiol. 2012; 113: 1545-1559
        • Folland J.P.
        • Williams A.G.
        The adaptations to strength training: morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength.
        Sports Med. 2007; 37: 145-168
        • Higham T.E.
        • Biewener A.A.
        Functional and architectural complexity within and between muscles: regional variation and intermuscular force transmission.
        Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011; 366: 1477-1487
        • Faul F.
        • Erdfelder E.
        • Lang A.-G.
        • et al.
        Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences.
        Behav Res Methods. 2007; 39: 175-191