Advertisement

Intense resistance exercise increases peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor

  • Kieran J. Marston
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Michael J. Newton
    Affiliations
    School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Belinda M. Brown
    Affiliations
    School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Australia

    Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research & Care, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Australia

    Sir James McCusker Alzheimer’s Disease Research Unit (Hollywood Private Hospital), Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith
    Affiliations
    Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research & Care, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Australia

    Sir James McCusker Alzheimer’s Disease Research Unit (Hollywood Private Hospital), Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Sabine Bird
    Affiliations
    Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research & Care, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Australia

    Sir James McCusker Alzheimer’s Disease Research Unit (Hollywood Private Hospital), Australia

    School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Ralph N. Martins
    Affiliations
    Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research & Care, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Australia

    Sir James McCusker Alzheimer’s Disease Research Unit (Hollywood Private Hospital), Australia

    School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Australia
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jeremiah J. Peiffer
    Affiliations
    School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Australia
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Objectives

      Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to increase in an intensity dependent manner in response to aerobic exercise. However, previous research investigating the use of resistance exercise to increase BDNF levels has been less conclusive, likely due to the low intensity nature of traditional resistance exercise programs. This study examined the influence of acute resistance exercise to-fatigue on serum BDNF levels and blood lactate.

      Design

      Acute crossover study.

      Methods

      Eleven untrained to intermediately trained males (age: 25.0 ± 1.3 year) and five untrained females (age: 23.2 ± 1.1 year) were recruited to undertake two bouts of resistance exercise. Strength (five sets of five repetitions, 180 s recovery) and hypertrophy (three sets of ten repetitions, 60 s recovery) based resistance exercise was implemented to-fatigue to examine the effect on serum BDNF and blood lactate levels immediately post-, and 30 min post-exercise.

      Results

      An interaction (p < 0.01; ES = 0.52) was observed between conditions immediately post-exercise, with hypertrophy resulting in significantly greater BDNF levels when compared with strength exercise. Changes in lactate and BDNF from baseline to post- exercise were positively correlated following hypertrophy exercise (r = 0.70; p < 0.01), but not correlated following strength exercise (r = 0.18; p = 0.56).

      Conclusions

      The use of a to-fatigue hypertrophy based resistance exercise protocol provides the necessary stimulus to increase peripheral serum BDNF. Mechanistically, the presence of lactate does not appear to drive the BDNF response during resistance exercise.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Villemagne V.L.
        • Burnham S.
        • Bourgeat P.
        • et al.
        Amyloid beta deposition, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline in sporadic Alzheimer's disease: a prospective cohort study.
        Lancet Neurol. 2013; 12: 357-367
        • Lautenschlager N.T.
        • Cox K.L.
        • Flicker L.
        • et al.
        Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial.
        JAMA. 2008; 300: 1027-1037
        • Mattson M.P.
        • Maudsley S.
        • Martin B.
        BDNF and 5-HT: a dynamic duo in age-related neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative disorders.
        Trends Neurosci. 2004; 27: 589-594
        • Ferris L.T.
        • Williams J.S.
        • Shen C.L.
        The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39: 728-734
        • Nofuji Y.
        • Suwa M.
        • Sasaki H.
        • et al.
        Different circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor responses to acute exercise between physically active and sedentary subjects.
        J Sports Sci Med. 2012; 11: 83-88
        • Rasmussen P.
        • Brassard P.
        • Adser H.
        • et al.
        Evidence for a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from the brain during exercise.
        Exp Physiol. 2009; 94: 1062-1069
        • American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand
        Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 687-708
        • Liu-Ambrose T.
        • Nagamatsu L.S.
        • Graf P.
        • et al.
        Resistance training and executive functions: a 12-month randomized controlled trial.
        Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170: 170-178
        • Yarrow J.F.
        • White L.J.
        • McCoy S.C.
        • et al.
        Training augments resistance exercise induced elevation of circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).
        Neurosci Lett. 2010; 479: 161-165
        • Goekint M.
        • De Pauw K.
        • Roelands B.
        • et al.
        Strength training does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010; 110: 285-293
        • Correia P.R.
        • Pansani A.
        • Machado F.
        • et al.
        Acute strength exercise and the involvement of small or large muscle mass on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.
        Clinics. 2010; 65: 1123-1126
        • Kraemer W.J.
        • Marchitelli L.
        • Gordon S.E.
        • et al.
        Hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise protocols.
        J Appl Physiol. 1990; 69: 1442-1450
        • Smith E.W.
        • Skelton M.S.
        • Kremer D.E.
        • et al.
        Lactate distribution in the blood during steady-state exercise.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998; 30: 1424-1429
        • Denton J.
        • Cronin J.B.
        Kinematic, kinetic, and blood lactate profiles of continuous and intraset rest loading schemes.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2006; 20: 528-534
        • Ratel S.
        • Bedu M.
        • Hennegrave A.
        • et al.
        Effects of age and recovery duration on peak power output during repeated cycling sprints.
        Int J Sports Med. 2002; 23: 397-402
        • Janowsky J.S.
        Thinking with your gonads: testosterone and cognition.
        Trends Cogn Sci. 2006; 10: 77-82
        • Khan A.S.
        • Sane D.C.
        • Wannenburg T.
        • et al.
        Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and the aging cardiovascular system.
        Cardiovasc Res. 2002; 54: 25-35
        • Woo J.S.
        • Derleth C.
        • Stratton J.R.
        • et al.
        The influence of age, gender, and training on exercise efficiency.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47: 1049-1057
        • Baechle T.R.
        • Earle R.W.
        Essentials of strength training and conditioning.
        3rd ed. Human Kinetics, United States2008
        • Blazevich A.J.
        • Jenkins D.G.
        Effect of the movement speed of resistance training exercises on sprint and strength performance in concurrently training elite junior sprinters.
        J Sports Sci. 2002; 20: 981-990
        • Giles C.
        The platelet count and mean platelet volume.
        Br J Haematol. 1981; 48: 31-37
        • Joyner M.J.
        • Casey D.P.
        Regulation of increased blood flow (Hyperemia) to muscles during exercise: A hierarchy of competing physiological needs.
        Physiol Rev. 2015; 95: 549-601
        • Rådegran G.
        Ultrasound doppler estimates of femoral artery blood flow during dynamic knee extensor exercise in humans.
        J Appl Physiol. 1997; 83: 1383-1388
        • Takahashi T.
        • Saitoh T.
        • Okada A.
        • et al.
        Differences in femoral artery blood velocity among active, inactive and passive recovery modes following knee extension and flexion exercise.
        Ther Res. 2006; 27: 1393-1403
        • Fujimura H.
        • Altar C.A.
        • Chen R.
        • et al.
        Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is stored in human platelets and released by agonist stimulation.
        Thromb Haemost. 2002; 87: 728-734
        • Ross M.D.
        • Wekesa A.L.
        • Phelan J.P.
        • et al.
        Resistance exercise increases endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenic factors.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014; 46: 16-23
        • Wesche J.
        The time course and magnitude of blood flow changes in the human quadriceps muscles following isometric contraction.
        J Physiol. 1986; 377: 445-462
        • Pan W.
        • Banks W.A.
        • Fasold M.B.
        • et al.
        Transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood-brain barrier.
        Neuropharmacology. 1998; 37: 1553-1561
        • Teng H.K.
        • Teng K.K.
        • Lee R.
        • et al.
        ProBDNF induces neuronal apoptosis via activation of a receptor complex of p75NTR and sortilin.
        J Neurosci. 2005; 25: 5455-5463