Advertisement

Y-balance test performance and BMI are associated with ankle sprain injury in collegiate male athletes

Published:October 25, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.10.014

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To determine if static balance, dynamic balance, ankle range of motion, body mass index (BMI), or history of an ankle sprain were associated with ankle sprain injuries within male and female collegiate athletes.

      Design

      Prospective cohort.

      Methods

      Three hundred and eighty-four male (age = 19.79 ± 1.80 years, height = 178.02 ± 10.39 cm, mass = 85.71 ± 17.59 kg) and one hundred and sixty seven female (age = 19.80 ± 1.52 years, height = 165.61 ± 7.08 cm, mass = 66.16 ± 10.53 kg) collegiate athletes involved in a variety of sports at a NCAA Division II or NAIA institution participated. Baseline measures of the Y-Balance (YBT), modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS), weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT), BMI, and history of ankle sprain were recorded. Participants were followed prospectively for two years and incidence of ankle sprain injury was documented. The average of the WBLT, mBESS, and YBT measures were used for analysis. Male and female participants were analyzed separately. Mann–Whitney U tests were utilized to identify variables which may be significantly associated with ankle sprain injury for logistic regression analysis.

      Results

      A total of 59 (38 males and 21 females) individuals sustained an ankle sprain during the follow up period. The binary logistic regression revealed BMI (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.069; X2 = 12.89; p < 0.001; OR = 3.85; 95% CI, 1.90–7.79; p < 0.001) and anterior reach of the YBT (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.074; X2 = 13.70, p < 0.001; OR = 3.64; 95% CI = 1.83–7.23; p = 0.01) were significantly associated with ankle sprain injury in male athletes. No variables were associated with ankle sprain injury within female athletes.

      Conclusions

      Male collegiate athletes with greater BMI and lesser YBT anterior reach were at a greater risk of sustaining an ankle sprain injury.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Roos K.G.
        • Kerr Z.Y.
        • Mauntel T.C.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of lateral ligament complex ankle sprains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports.
        Am J Sports Med. 2016; 45: 201-209
        • Hootman J.M.
        • Dick R.
        • Agel J.
        Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives.
        J Athl Train. 2007; 42: 311-319
        • Gerber J.P.
        • Williams G.N.
        • Scoville C.R.
        • et al.
        Persistent disability associated with ankle sprains: a prospective examination of an athletic population.
        Foot Ankle Int. 1998; 19: 653-660
        • Valderrabano V.
        • Hintermann B.
        • Horisberger M.
        • et al.
        Ligamentous posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis.
        Am J Sports Med. 2006; 34 (619p): 612-620
        • Houston M.N.
        • Van Lunen B.L.
        • Hoch M.C.
        Health-related quality of life in individuals with chronic ankle instability.
        J Athl Train. 2014; 49: 758-763
        • Arnold B.L.
        • Wright C.J.
        • Ross S.E.
        Functional ankle instability and health-related quality of life.
        J Athl Train. 2011; 46: 634-641
        • Simon J.E.
        • Docherty C.L.
        Current health-related quality of life is lower in former Division I collegiate athletes than in non-collegiate athletes.
        Am J Sports Med. 2014; 42: 423-429
        • McHugh M.P.
        • Tyler T.F.
        • Tetro D.T.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for noncontact ankle sprains in high school athletes: the role of hip strength and balance ability.
        Am J Sports Med. 2006; 34: 464-470
        • Tyler T.F.
        • McHugh M.P.
        • Mirabella M.R.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for noncontact ankle sprains in high school football players: the role of previous ankle sprains and body mass index.
        Am J Sports Med. 2006; 34: 471-475
        • de Noronha M.
        • França L.C.
        • Haupenthal A.
        • et al.
        Intrinsic predictive factors for ankle sprain in active university students: a prospective study.
        Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013; 23: 541-547
        • Gribble P.A.
        • Terada M.
        • Beard M.Q.
        • et al.
        Prediction of lateral ankle sprains in football players based on clinical tests and body mass index.
        Am J Sports Med. 2016; 44: 460-467
        • Smith C.A.
        • Chimera N.J.
        • Warren M.
        Association of Y balance test reach asymmetry and injury in Division I athletes.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015; 47: 136-141
        • Trojian T.H.
        • McKeag D.B.
        Single leg balance test to identify risk of ankle sprains.
        Br J Sports Med. 2006; 40: 610-613
        • Willems T.M.
        • Witvrouw E.
        • Delbaere K.
        • et al.
        Intrinsic risk factors for inversion ankle sprains in male subjects.
        Am J Sports Med. 2005; 33: 415
        • Pope R.
        • Herbert R.
        • Kirwan J.
        Effects of ankle dorsiflexion range and pre-exercise calf muscle stretching on injury risk in Army recruits.
        Aust J Physiother. 1998; 44: 165-172
        • Hadzic V.
        • Sattler T.
        • Topole E.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for ankle sprain in volleyball players: a preliminary analysis.
        Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2009; 17: 155-160
        • Wright A.A.
        • Dischiavi S.L.
        • Smoliga J.M.
        • et al.
        Association of Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test with lower extremity injury in NCAA Division 1 athletes: an independent validation study.
        Physiotherapy. 2017; 103: 231-236
        • Stiffler M.R.
        • Bell D.R.
        • Sanfilippo J.L.
        • et al.
        Star Excursion Balance Test anterior asymmetry is associated with injury status in Division I collegiate athletes.
        J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017; 47: 339-346
        • Plisky P.J.
        • Gorman P.P.
        • Butler R.J.
        • et al.
        The reliability of an instrumented device for measuring components of the star excursion balance test.
        N Am J Sports Phys Ther. 2009; 4: 92-99
        • Riemann B.L.
        • Guskiewicz K.M.
        • Shields E.W.
        Relationship between clinical and forceplate measures of postural stability.
        J Sport Rehabil. 1999; 8: 71-82
        • Sheehan D.P.
        • Lafave M.R.
        • Katz L.
        Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the balance error scoring system in pre-adolescent school children.
        Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2011; 15: 234-243
        • Finnoff J.T.
        • Peterson V.J.
        • Hollman J.H.
        • et al.
        Intrarater and interrater reliability of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS).
        PM R. 2009; 1: 50-54
        • Powden C.J.
        • Hoch J.M.
        • Hoch M.C.
        Reliability and minimal detectable change of the weight-bearing lunge test: a systematic review.
        Man Ther. 2015; 20: 524-532
        • Yard E.
        • Comstock D.
        Injury patterns by body mass index in US high school athletes.
        J Phys Act Health. 2011; 8: 182-191
      1. About Adult BMI. Accessed 6 July 2017.

        • Hoch M.C.
        • Welsch L.A.
        • Hartley E.M.
        • et al.
        Y-balance test performance following a competitive field hockey season: a pretest-posttest study.
        J Sport Rehabil. 2017; : 1-13
        • Plisky P.J.
        • Rauh M.J.
        • Kaminski T.W.
        • et al.
        Star Excursion Balance Test as a predictor of lower extremity injury in high school basketball players.
        J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006; 36: 911-919
        • Attenborough A.S.
        • Sinclair P.J.
        • Sharp T.
        • et al.
        The identification of risk factors for ankle sprains sustained during netball participation.
        Phys Ther Sport. 2016; 23: 31-36
        • Janssen K.W.
        • van Mechelen W.
        • Verhagen E.A.L.M.
        Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial.
        Br J Sports Med. 2014; 48: 1235-1239
        • Hupperets M.D.W.
        • Verhagen E.A.L.
        • van Mechelen W.
        Effect of unsupervised home based proprioceptive training on recurrences of ankle sprain: randomised controlled trial.
        BMJ. 2009; 339b2684