Advertisement

Do riders who wear an air jacket in equestrian eventing have reduced injury risk in falls? A retrospective data analysis

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To investigate the association between air jacket usage and rider injury severity in equestrian eventing competition falls world-wide.

      Design

      Retrospective data analysis.

      Methods

      An analysis was conducted on Fédération Equestre Internationale data for 1819 riders who fell wearing an air jacket and 1486 riders who fell while not wearing an air jacket from 2015 to 2017. Injury data were categorised as either ‘no/slight injury’ or ‘serious/fatal injury’. A chi-square test determined whether an association was present between injury severity category and air jacket usage and binary logistic regression determined the effect size of this association.

      Results

      As a result of falls, 3203 riders sustained no/slight injuries and 102 sustained serious/fatal injuries. While 55.0% of riders who fell were wearing an air jacket, they represented 67.6% of the serious/fatal injury outcomes. Air jacket usage was significantly associated with serious/fatal injuries in falls ( = 6.76; p = 0.009). Riders wearing an air jacket had 1.7 times (95%CI 1.14–2.64) increased odds of sustaining a serious or fatal injury in a fall compared to riders not wearing an air jacket.

      Conclusions

      Riders wearing an air jacket were over represented in the percentage of serious or fatal injuries in falls compared to riders who only wore a standard body protector. Further research is needed to understand the reason(s) for this finding. It is recommended that additional data on injury outcomes, rider characteristics and the biomechanics of falls be examined in future analyses, and that air jacket and body protector characteristics be further investigated.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Paix B.R.
        • Whitlock M.
        Rider injury rates and emergency medical services at equestrian events.
        Br J Sports Med. 1999; 33: 46-48https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.33.1.46
        • Ball C.G.
        • Ball J.E.
        • Kirkpatrick A.W.
        • et al.
        Equestrian injuries: incidence, injury patterns, and risk factors for 10 years of major traumatic injuries.
        Amer J Surg. 2007; 193: 636-640https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2007.01.016
        • Hitchens P.L.
        • Blizzard C.L.
        • Jones G.
        • et al.
        The incidence of race-day jockey falls in Australia, 2002-2006.
        Med J Aust. 2009; 190: 83-86
      1. Fédération Equestre Internationale. FEI eventing risk mangement program statistics 2006 to 2017. p.17.21-23. Available at: https://inside.fei.org/fei/disc/eventing/risk-management. [Accessed 25 May 2018].

        • Hynd D.
        • Muirhead M.
        • Carroll J.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the effectiveness of an exemplar equestrian air jacket against crush injuries.
        Int Res Counc Biomech Inj. 2016; : 888-895
        • Hasler R.M.
        • Gyssler L.
        • Benneker L.
        • et al.
        Protective and risk factors in amateur equestrians and description of injury patterns: a retrospective data analysis and a case - control survey.
        J Trauma Manag Outcomes. 2011; 5https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-2897-5-4
        • Bilaniuk J.W.
        • Adams J.M.
        • Difazio L.T.
        • et al.
        Equestrian trauma: Injury patterns vary among age groups.
        Am Surg. 2014; 80: 396-402
        • Theodore J.E.
        • Theodore S.G.
        • Stockton K.A.
        • et al.
        Paediatric horse-related trauma.
        J Paediatr Child Health. 2017; 53: 543-550https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.13471
        • Lim J.
        • Puttaswamy V.
        • Gizzi M.
        • et al.
        Pattern of equestrian injuries presenting to a Sydney teaching hospital.
        ANZ J Surg. 2003; 73: 567-571https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1445-2197.2003.02707.x
        • Whitlock M.R.
        Injuries to riders in the cross country phase of eventing: the importance of protective equipment.
        Br J Sports Med. 1999; 33: 212-214https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.33.3.212
      2. Australian Rules of Racing amended to 1st January 2018. p.61. Available at: https://www.racingaustralia.horse/FreeServices/Australian_Rules_Of_Racing.aspx. [Accessed 20 July 2018].

        • Hessler C.
        • Eckert V.
        • Meiners J.
        • et al.
        Causes, injuries, therapy and possibilities of prevention of equine-related accidents. Results of a 2-center-study.
        Unfallchirurg. 2014; 117: 123-127https://doi.org/10.1007/s00113-012-2275-z
        • Ten Kate C.A.
        • De Kooter T.A.
        • Kramer W.L.M.
        Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding.
        Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2015; 159
        • Hessler C.
        • Eckert V.
        • Vettorazzi E.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of safety vests in pediatric horseback riding.
        Klin Padiatr. 2012; 224: 443-447https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1327621
        • Foote C.E.
        • Gibson T.J.
        • McGauran P.J.
        Evaluation of safety vests—health and safety in Australian racing.
        Rural Industries Res Dev Corporation. 2014; 14
        • Hessler C.
        • Namislo V.
        • Kammler G.
        • et al.
        Spine injuries due to horse riding accidents – an analysis of 30 cases.
        Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2011; 25: 93-96https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1245831
        • Schröter C.
        • Macke C.
        • Schulte-Sutum A.
        • et al.
        Development of an emergency guide card for the handling of airbag vests in equestrian riding accidents.
        Notf Rett Med. 2016; 19: 411-412https://doi.org/10.1007/s10049-016-0150-0
        • Ade N.
        • Stämpfli R.
        • Schmitt K.U.
        Evaluating airbag safety vests for equestrian sports.
        J Test Eval. 2016; 44: 2387-2395https://doi.org/10.1520/JTE20140345
        • Ikinger C.-M.
        • Baldamus J.
        • Spiller A.
        Factors influencing the safety behavior of German equestrians: attitudes towards protective equipment and peer behaviors.
        Animals. 2016; 6: 14https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6020014
        • Chiodetti L.
        • Coustillas S.
        • Bouthin B.
        • et al.
        Efficacité du port du gilet airbag sur la prevalence des blessures thoraciques et rachidiennes lors d’une chute sur les épreuves de cross en équitation : étude prospective faite d’octobre 2013 à juin 2015.
        J Traumatol Sport. 2015; 32: 177-183https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jts.2015.09.004
        • Fédération Equestre Internationale
        FEI eventing risk management seminar – Brussels (BEL) report.
        (p.4,9,16,21. Available at: https://inside.fei.org/fei/disc/eventing/risk-management/seminars-2014 [Accessed 25 May 2018])2016
      3. Fédération Equestre Internationale. Eventing risk management summit course designers/TDs/judges/national safety officers Tattersalls (IRL) 10-12 February 2017 Report. 21. Available at: https://inside.fei.org/fei/disc/eventing/risk-management/seminars-2017. [Accessed 25 May 2018].

      4. Fédération Equestre Internationale. FEI eventing risk management. Available at: https://inside.fei.org/fei/disc/eventing/risk-management. [Accessed 03 March 2018].

        • Fédération Equestre Internationale
        FEI eventing risk management seminar –Greenwich London (GBR) Report.
        2011: 6 (Available at: https://inside.fei.org/fei/disc/eventing/risk-management/seminars-2012-11 [Accessed 25 May 2018])
        • Fédération Equestre Internationale
        FEI eventing risk management seminar – Rome (ITA) Report.
        2012: 1 (Available at: https://inside.fei.org/fei/disc/eventing/risk-management/seminars-2013. [Accessed 25 May 2018])
      5. Fédération Equestre Internationale. Eventing risk management (NSO) seminar Lausanne (SUI) 27-28 January 2018 report. 3. Available at: https://inside.fei.org/fei/disc/eventing/risk-management/seminars-2017. [Accessed 25 May 2018].

        • Brolin K.
        • Wass J.
        Explicit finite element methods for equestrian applications.
        Procedia Eng. 2016; 147: 275-280https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.277
        • Nylund L.
        Theory and science, chapter 2, in surviving the unexpected: fall safety training for horse riders.
        1st ed. Nylund Pty Ltd, Hunters Hill NSW (Australia)2016
        • Roy J.P.R.
        • Stefanyshyn D.J.
        Shoe midsole longitudinal bending stiffness and running economy, joint energy, and EMG.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38: 562-569https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000193562.22001.e8
        • Ramirez-Moreno D.F.
        • Sejnowski T.J.
        A computational model for the modulation of the prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex.
        Biol Cybern. 2012; 106: 169-176https://doi.org/10.1007/s00422-012-0485-7