The addition of cycling to the fundamental movement phase of the motor development model has been proposed. Lifelong physical activity behaviours, like cycling, are established during childhood and it is vital that research focuses on these skills. In order to determine the position of cycling within this newly proposed model, the learning process of this skill must be examined. The current paper will quantify the skill of cycling as a learning process and investigate cycling’s place as a Foundational Movement Skill. Investigation into whether a composite score could be derived from combining fundamental movement skills proficiency scores and ability on a balance bike (as a measure of the learning process of cycling) will also be conducted.
Design and Methods
Ninety-seven preschool children were assessed on ability on a balance bike (bike with no pedals) using two separate timed tracks (straight and curved) and fundamental movement skill proficiency. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations and principal axis factoring.
Statistically significant correlations were found between ability on a balance bike and all three subcomponents of fundamental movement skills (locomotor, object-control & stability). Principal axis factoring revealed the presence of one component that all four variables could explain.
Ability on a balance bike is a standalone Foundational Movement Skill and is not a representation of locomotor, object-control or stability. Furthermore, ability on a balance bike can be combined with locomotor, object-control and stability to produce an overall composite score for Foundational Movement Skills.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Understanding Motor Development.6th ed. Mc Graw Hill, 2006
- The Mountain of Motor Development. vol. 2. 1989
- Life Span Motor Development.3rd ed. Human Kinetics, 2005
- Motor skill interventions for young Children.Niğde Univ J Phys Educ Sport Sci. 2015; 9: 133-149
- The effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention in pre-schoolers with motor problems depends on gender but not environmental context.Res Dev Disabil. 2013; 34: 4571-4581https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.09.035
- Interventions to promote fundamental movement skills in childcare and kindergarten: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Sport Med. 2017; 47https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0723-1
- Contributions of after school programs to the development of fundamental movement skills in children.Int J Exerc Sci. 2014; 7: 236-249
- Physical activity and skills intervention: SCORES cluster randomized controlled trial.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015; 47: 765-774https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000452
- Fundamental movement skill interventions in youth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Pediatrics. 2013; 132: e1361-83https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1167
- Development of foundational movement skills: a conceptual model for physical activity across the lifespan.Sport Med. 2018; 48: 1533-1540https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0892-6
- Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health.Int J Obes. 2008; 32: 1-11https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774
- Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health.Sport Med. 2015; 45: 1273-1284https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0351-6
- Global participation in sport and leisure-time physical activities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Prev Med (Baltim). 2017; 95: 14-25https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.027
- Health benefits of cycling: a systematic review.Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2011; 21: 496-509https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01299.x
- Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth.Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010; 7: 40https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-40
LIKEaBIKE. Available at: http://www.likeabike.co.uk/. Accessed September 2018.
First BIKE. www.firstbike.com/. Accessed September 2018.
Strider. www.striderbikes.com/. Accessed September 2018.
- Dynamics of Skill Acquisition.1st ed. Human Kinetics, 2008
- Movement Assessment Battery for Children.2nd ed. Pearson, 2007
- Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition (BOT-2).Phys Occup Ther Pedatrics. 2010; 27: 87-102https://doi.org/10.1080/J006v27n04
- Assessing health-related fitness tests in the school setting: reliability, feasibility and safety; the ALPHA study.Int J Sports Med. 2010; 31: 490-497https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1251990
- An index of factorial simplicity.Psychometrika. 1974; 39: 31-36
- Properties of sufficiency and statistical tests.Proc R Soc Lond A. 1937; A: 268-282
- SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using the SPSS Program.4th ed. Allen & Unwin, Berkshire2011
IBM Analytics. USA.
- From the beginning: a developmental perspective on movement and mobility.Quest. 2005; 57: 37-45https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2005.10491841
- Fundamental movement skills are more than run, throw and catch: the role of stability skills.PLoS One. 2015; 10https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140224
- Exploring the relationship between fundamental motor skill interventions and physical activity levels in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Sport Med. 2018; 48: 1845-1857https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0923-3
- Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: review of associated health benefits.Sports Med. 2010; 40: 1019-1035https://doi.org/10.2165/11536850-000000000-00000
- Relationship between fundamental motor skill competence and physical activity during childhood and adolescence: a systematic review.Kinesiol Rev. 2015; 4: 416-426https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2013-0012
- Long-term importance of fundamental motor skills: a 20-year follow-up study.Adapt Phys Act Q. 2014; 31: 67-78https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2013-0048
Published online: August 28, 2019
Accepted: August 22, 2019
Received in revised form: July 30, 2019
Received: November 19, 2018
© 2019 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.