Previous studies comparing shoes based on the amount of midsole cushioning have generally used shoes from multiple manufacturers, where factors outside of stack height may contribute to observed biomechanical differences in running mechanics between shoes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare ground reaction forces and ankle kinematics during running between three shoes (maximal, traditional, and minimal) from the same manufacturer that only varied in stack height.
Within-participant repeated measures
Twenty recreational runners ran overground in the laboratory in three shoe conditions (maximal, traditional, minimal) while three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a 3D motion capture system and two embedded force plates. Repeated measures ANOVAs (α = .05) compared biomechanical data between shoes.
While the loading rate was significantly greater in the minimal shoe compared to the maximal shoe, no other differences were seen for the ground reaction force variables. Peak eversion was greater in the maximal and minimal shoe compared to the traditional shoe, while eversion duration and eversion at toe-off were greater in the maximal shoe.
Previously cited differences in ground reaction force parameters between maximal and traditional footwear may be due to factors outside of midsole stack height. The eversion mechanics in the maximal shoes from this study may place runners at a greater risk of injury. Disagreement between previous studies indicates that more research on maximal running shoes is needed.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- What are the main running related musculoskeletal injuries?.Sport Med. 2012; 42: 892-905https://doi.org/10.2165/11631170-000000000-00000
- A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes.J Foot Ankle Res. 2015; 8: 1-9https://doi.org/10.1186/s13047-015-0094-5
- The influence of minimalist and maximalist footwear on Patellofemoral kinetics during running.J Appl Biomech. 2016; 32: 359-364https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.2015-0249
- The influence of cadence and shoes on patellofemoral joint kinetics in runners with patellofemoral pain.J Sci Med Sport. 2018; 21: 574-578https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.09.593
- Footwear characteristics are related to running mechanics in runners with patellofemoral pain.Gait Posture. 2017; 54: 144-147https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.03.010
- Effects of barefoot and barefoot inspired footwear on knee and ankle loading during running.Clin Biomech. 2014; 29: 395-399https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2014.02.004
- Manipulation of foot strike and footwear increases Achilles tendon loading during running.Am J Sports Med. 2017; 45: 2411-2417https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546517704429
- Effects of minimalist and maximalist footwear on Achilles tendon load in recreational runners.Comp Exerc Physiol. 2015; 11: 239-244https://doi.org/10.3920/CEP150024
- Kinematic and kinetic comparison of running in standard and minimalist shoes.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014; 46: 318-323https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182a595d2
- Greater vertical impact loading in female runners with medically diagnosed injuries: a prospective investigation.Br J Sports Med. 2016; 50: 887-892https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094579
- Biomechanical factors associated with tibial stress fracture in female runners.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38: 323-328https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000183477.75808.92
- Biomechanical predictors of retrospective tibial stress fractures in runners.J Biomech. 2008; 41: 1160-1165https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.02.001
- The relationship between lower-extremity stress fractures and the ground reaction force: a systematic review.Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2011; 26: 23-28https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.08.005
- Examining injury risk and pain perception in runners using minimalist footwear.Br J Sports Med. 2014; 48: 1257-1262https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-092061
- Influence of maximal running shoes on biomechanics before and after a 5K run.Orthop J Sport Med. 2018; 6: 1-5https://doi.org/10.1177/2325967118775720
- Does maximalist footwear lower impact loading during level ground and downhill running?.Eur J Sport Sci. 2018; 18: 1083-1089https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1472298
- No immediate effects of highly cushioned shoes on basic running biomechanics.Kinesiology. 2018; 50: 124-130
- Immediate and short-term adaptations to maximalist and minimalist running shoes.Footwear Sci. 2018; 4280: 1-13https://doi.org/10.1080/19424280.2018.1460624
- A 6-week transition to maximal running shoes does not change running biomechanics.Am J Sports Med. 2019; 47: 968-973https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546519826086
- The influence of minimalist and maximalist footwear on the kinetics and kinematics of running.Footwear Sci. 2016; 8: 33-39https://doi.org/10.1080/19424280.2016.1142003
- Running in highly cushioned shoes increases leg stiffness and amplifies impact loading.Sci Rep. 2018; 8: 1-7https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35980-6
- Biomechanical factors associated with achilles tendinopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome in runners.Am J Sports Med. 2017; 45: 2614-2621https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546517708193
- Factors contributing to medial tibial stress syndrome in runners: a prospective study.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018; 50: 2092-2100https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001674
- Comparison of ankle kinematics and ground reaction forces between prospectively injured and uninjured collegiate cross country runners.Hum Mov Sci. 2016; 47: 9-15https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2016.01.013
- A consensus definition of running-related injury in recreational runners: a modified Delphi approach.J Orthop Sport Phys Ther. 2015; 45: 375-380https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2015.5741
- Footwear matters: influence of footwear and foot strike on load rates during running.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016; 48: 2462-2468https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001030
- The influence of barefoot and barefoot-inspired footwear on the kinetics and kinematics of running in comparison to conventional running shoes.Footwear Sci. 2013; 5: 45-53https://doi.org/10.1080/19424280.2012.693543
- Gait-related risk factors for exercise-related lower-leg pain during shod running.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39: 330-339https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000247001.94470.21
- A prospective comparison of lower extremity kinematics and kinetics between injured and non-injured collegiate cross country runners.Hum Mov Sci. 2017; 52: 197-202https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2017.02.007
- Acute effect of different minimalist shoes on foot strike pattern and kinematics in rearfoot strikers during running.J Sports Sci. 2015; 33: 1196-1204https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.989534
Published online: August 13, 2019
Accepted: August 8, 2019
Received in revised form: August 2, 2019
Received: April 27, 2019
© 2019 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.