Original research| Volume 25, ISSUE 6, P474-479, June 2022

Download started.


Hamstring injuries in England and Wales elite men's domestic cricket from 2010 to 2019

Published:February 10, 2022DOI:



      Describe hamstring injury incidence across competition formats, activity at time of injury, and time of season, facilitating the identification of injury risk factors in elite men's senior First-Class County Cricket.


      Prospective cohort.


      Hamstring time loss injury incidence (between format, activity, and time of season) calculated for elite men's senior First-Class County Cricket seasons 2010 to 2019.


      The diagnosis with the highest seasonal incidence was ‘Biceps femoris strain grade 1–2’ (2.5 injuries/100 players). Hamstring injury incidence was highest in One-Day cricket (mean 27.2 injuries/1000 team days). Running between wickets when batting was the activity associated with the highest incidence in the shorter competition formats (8.4 and 4.8 injuries/1000 team days for One-Day and T20, respectively). Bowling delivery stride or follow through was the activity with the highest incidence for longer multi-day Test format (mean 2.3 injuries/1000 team days), although similar incidence was observed across all formats for this activity. Most injuries were sustained at the start of the season (April; 22.7 injuries/1000 team days), with significantly fewer injuries at end of the season (September; 4.1 injuries/1000 team days).


      Similar bowling injury incidence across formats suggests hamstring injury risk is associated more with the activity itself, whereas injury risk when batting was susceptible to changes in match intensity. The notably higher (albeit non-significant) incidence in April may allude to a lack of preparedness to meet the physical demands of the start of the season. The findings have practical relevance for practitioners, identifying potential opportunities for preventative strategies.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Orchard J.W.
        • James T.
        • Portus M.R.
        Injuries to elite male cricketers in Australia over 10-year period.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2006; 9: 459-467
        • Orchard J.W.
        • Kountouris A.
        • Sims K.
        Incidence and prevalence of elite male cricket injuries using updated consensus definitions.
        Open Access J Sports Med. 2016; 7: 187-194
        • Goggins L.
        • Peirce N.
        • Ranson C.
        • et al.
        Injuries in England and Wales elite men’s domestic cricket: a nine season review from 2010 to 2018.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2020; 23: 836-840
        • Orchard J.W.
        • Kountouris A.
        • Sims K.
        Risk factors for hamstring injuries in Australian male professional cricket players.
        J Sport Health Sci. 2017; 6: 271-274
        • Croisier J.L.
        • Ganteaume S.
        • Binet J.
        • et al.
        Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study.
        Am J Sports Med. 2008; 36: 1469-1475
        • Williams S.
        • Trewartha G.
        • Kemp S.
        • et al.
        A meta-analysis of injuries in senior men’s professional rugby union.
        Sports Med. 2013; 43: 1043-1055
        • Ahmad C.S.
        • Dick R.W.
        • Snell E.
        • et al.
        Major and Minor League Baseball hamstring injuries: epidemiologic findings from the Major League Baseball Injury Surveillance System.
        Am J Sports Med. 2014; 42: 1464-1470
        • Peterson C.J.
        • Pyne D.
        • Dawson B.
        • et al.
        Movement patterns in cricket vary by both position and game format.
        J Sports Sci. 2010; 28: 45-52
        • Peterson C.J.
        • Pyne D.B.
        • Portus M.R.
        • et al.
        Comparison of player movement patterns between 1-day and test cricket.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2011; 25: 1368-1373
        • Orchard J.W.
        • Ranson C.
        • Olivier B.
        • et al.
        International consensus statement on injury surveillance in cricket: a 2016 update.
        Br J Sports Med. 2016; 50: 1245-1251
        • Rae K.
        • Orchard J.W.
        The orchard sports injury classification system (OSICS) version 10.
        Clin J Sport Med. 2007; 17: 201-204
        • Hulin B.T.
        • Gabbett T.J.
        • Blanch P.
        Spikes in acute workload are associated with increased injury risk in elite cricket fast bowlers.
        Br J Sports Med. 2014; 48: 708-712
        • Orchard J.W.
        • Blanch P.
        • Paoloni J.
        • et al.
        Cricket fast bowing workload patterns as risk factors for tendon, muscle, bone and joint injuries.
        Br J Sports Med. 2015; 49: 1064-1068
        • Goggins L.
        • McKay C.
        • Peirce N.
        • et al.
        “You come up with different theories every year”: practitioner perceptions of injury risk factors and player monitoring practices in elite men’s domestic cricket.
        Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2021; 16: 804-814
        • van Dyk N.
        • Behan F.P.
        • Whiteley R.
        Including the Nordic hamstring exercise in injury prevention programmes halves the rate of hamstring injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 8459 athletes.
        Br J Sports Med. 2019; 0: 1-10
        • Malone S.
        • Roe M.
        • Doran D.
        • et al.
        High chronic training loads and exposure to bouts of maximal velocity running reduce injury risk in elite Gaelic football.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2017; 20: 250-254
        • Malone S.
        • Owen A.
        • Mendes B.
        • et al.
        High-speed running and sprinting as an injury risk factor in soccer: can well-developed physical qualities reduce the risk?.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2018; 21: 257-262
        • Ruddy J.D.
        • Pollard C.W.
        • Timmins R.G.
        • et al.
        Running exposure is associated with the risk of hamstring strain injury in elite Australian footballers.
        Br J Sports Med. 2018; 52: 919-928
        • Chesterton P.
        • Tears C.
        • Wright M.
        • et al.
        Hamstring injury prevention practices and compliance of the Nordic hamstring program in English professional football.
        Transl Sports Med. 2021; 4: 214-222
        • Green B.
        • Bourne M.N.
        • van Dyk N.
        • et al.
        Recalibrating the risk of hamstring strain injury (HSI): a 2020 systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for index and recurrent hamstring injury in sport.
        Br J Sports Med. 2020; 54: 1081-1088
        • Ruddy J.D.
        • Cormack S.J.
        • Whiteley R.
        • et al.
        Modelling the risk of team sport injuries: a narrative review of different statistical approaches.
        Front Psychol. 2019; 10: 1-16
        • Bittencourt N.F.
        • Meeuwisse W.H.
        • Mendonca L.D.
        • et al.
        Complex systems approach for sports injuries: moving from risk factor identification to injury pattern recognition-narrative review and new concept.
        Br J Sports Med. 2016; 50: 1309-1314
        • Ayala F.
        • Lopez-Valenciano A.
        • Martin J.A.G.
        • et al.
        A preventative model for hamstring injuries in professional soccer: learning algorithms.
        Int J Sports Med. 2019; 40: 344-353