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Pitching mechanics and performance of adult baseball pitchers: A systematic review and meta-analysis for normative data

Published:November 24, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2022.11.004

      Abstract

      Objectives

      The aim of this systematic review was to critically review and synthesise the findings from primary studies on pitching mechanics and performance of healthy adult baseball pitchers.

      Design

      Systematic review with meta-analysis.

      Methods

      Eight English- and Japanese-language databases were systematically searched from inception to 22nd July 2022.

      Results

      In total, 29 descriptive biomechanical studies were included. Overall study quality was moderate. In subgroup analyses, professional pitchers showed significantly higher stride length, peak shoulder internal rotation velocity, peak shoulder proximal force and ball velocity compared to collegiate pitchers. Conversely, collegiate pitchers were found to have significantly higher peak pelvis rotation velocity.

      Conclusions

      Available normative data suggested potentially heterogeneous pitching mechanics and performance between professional and collegiate pitchers. However, the findings in this review should be interpreted cautiously. Since statistical heterogeneity was significant within most data sets, more detailed subgroup analyses are required. Additionally, more high-quality studies utilising measurement systems with established reliability are required to obtain accurate data in baseball pitching mechanics and performance.

      Keywords

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